Blackberry: Scrambling, very thorny, semi-erect shrub that is usually deciduous, with large root crowns and long suckers. Stems arching (occasionally semi-prostrate), entangled, green or red and occasionally layering. Variously shaped (usually cut-edged), flat leaves are arranged alternately on the stems. White to pink 5-petalled flowers appear from November to April followed by clusters of black berries from November to May.
Gorse: Sharply spiny shrub to 2-3 m tall with woody erect or spreading stems which are many-branched in younger plants but become bare at the base as the plant gets older. Leaves are reduced to spines, new leaves less so. Spines are deeply furrowed. Pea-like yellow flowers (13-20 mm long) appear from May to November (occasionally all year round), followed by hairy seed pods (13-25 mm long) which turn black when mature and explode to release seeds.
Ragwort: Smelly biennial or perennial (occasionally annual) herb to 30-120 cm tall, with a tap root (crown) with numerous fibrous roots extending 30+ cm. Wavy, lobed leaves (5-20 x 4-6 cm) emerge initially from a basal rosette, and stem leaves are deeply cut, clasp the stem, and have no broad terminal lobes. Erect, rigid stems (50-120 cm) are single (multiple in perennial plants), usually purplish and usually branch above the middle. Yellow, daisy-like flowers (up to 2 cm diameter) with golden yellow centres are produced from November to April and have 11-13 yellow petal-like florets in compact, flat-topped clusters at the ends of stems. Seeds are like thistledown.